Latency due to distance = approximately 1ms per 100km
There are two *normal* factors that significantly influence latency
- The latency of the connecting device. For a cable modem, this can normally be between 5 and 40 ms. For a DSL modem this is normally 10 to 70ms. For a dial-up modem, this is normally anywhere from 100 to 220ms. For a cellular link, this can be from 200 to 600 ms. For a T1, this is normally 0 to 10 ms.
- The distance the data is traveling. Data travels at (very roughly) 120,000 miles (or 192,000 kilometers) per second, or 120 miles (192 km) per ms (millisecond) over a network connection. With traceroute, we have to send the data there and back again, so the latency will raise roughly 1ms for every 60 miles (96km, although with the level of accuracy we're using here, we should say "100km") of distance between you and the target.